Category: Food & Drink
Is there a COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health) information data sheet generally available for stainless steels to outline any risks associated with its handling, fabrication and use.
The compositions (chemical analysis) of cutlery and holloware steel types 18/8 (18.8 or 18-8), 18/10 (18.10 or 18-10) and 18/0 are described. The use of these austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for cutlery is briefly outlined and compared to the martensitic stainless steels. LAST UPDATED 1st February 2001
Stainless steels are widely used in food and beverage manufacturing and processing industries for manufacture, bulk storage and transportation, preparation and presentation applications. The '316' types are often referred to as the 'food' grades. The 304 and 430 types are suitable for food processing and handling, depending on the corrosion resistance required in the particular application. There is no known official classification, or restriction for stainless steels for food industry applications. Duplex types are used in more aggressive environments where there may be a risk of stress corrosion cracking.
Stainless steel grades, such as the 304 or 316 types are generally suitable for storing and handling cold or unheated drinking (town's) waters. Hot water tanks however may be at risk from stress corrosion cracking (SCC) Austenitic types such as 304 or 316 can be useful and are used, but in extreme cases the more 'SCC' resistant duplex stainless steels should be considered.
Paper originally delivered at the BSSA Conference 'Stainless Solutions for a Sustainable Future' held in Rotherham on 3rd April 2003. This paper discusses applications for stainless steels in beverage dairy and food, drinking water supply, medical devices and pharmaceutical industry applications. Chloride limits in waters for grade selection and metal ion release criteria are outlined. The EU Medical Device Directive sets criteria for medical devices that stainless steels can meet and the range of grades used for various devices is also discussed along with the scope of ISO standards 7153 and 5832 (surgical implants). The application of grades 1.4006 (410), 1.4021 (420), 1.4122, 1.4116 and 1.4125 (440C) martensitic, 1.4016 (430) ferritic, 1.4301 (304), 1.4305 (303) and 1.4401 (316) austenitic and 1.4462 (2205) and 1.4362 (2304) duplex grades in these industries is outlined.
Grades 1.4301 (304) 1.4401(316) and 430 (1.4016) are compared for food contact applications. A list of typical applications for martensitic 1.4028 (420) and 1.4116 ferritic 1.4016 (430) austenitic 1.4301 (304) 1.4401 (316) and 1.4539 (904L) austenitic 1.4362 and 1.4462 (2205) duplex and 1.4547 (254SMO) superaustenitic types is presented. Corrosion hazards in food applications ie pitting crevice and stress corrosion cracking are discussed. Suitable cleaning and disinfection systems should avoid the use of hypochlorite or chloride solutions.