Elevated temperature physical properties of stainless steels

Introduction

BS EN 10088-1 gives a limited amount of data for specification purposes. Above ambient temperatures this is limited to modulus of elasiticity (Youngs modulus) and coefficients of thermal expansion. The maximum temperature for which there is data is 500 degC.

There is more detailed 'typical' data in the INCO publication 'Austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steels-engineering properties at elevated temperatures'.This including tensile and shear modulus data, Poisson's ratio, density, thermal expansion, conductivity, specific heat and electrical resistivity. A selection from this data is tabulated in this article for the common austenitic grades only. Some of the data shown in this article is interpolated from graphs in the original publication.

BSSA does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of the data shown in this article.

Elevated temperature modulii of elasticity and coefficients of expansion for stainless steels specified in BS EN 10088-1

The table below is based on the reference data presented in BS EN 10088-1. Only a sample of the information is shown for the most commonly used stainless steel types. These are grouped using 'AISI' steel types. The separate table indicates some of the grades that have been grouped together.

Steel Types (AISI) Modulus of elasticity (kN/mm2), at: Mean coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6 x K-1) between 20C and :
Temp. 20C 100C 200C 300C 400C 500C 100C 200C 300C 400C 500C
Ferritic stainless steels
410S 220 215 210 205 195 - 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.0
430 220 215 210 205 195 - 10.0 10.0 10.5 10.5 11.0
444 220 215 210 205 195 - 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 11.9
Martensitic and precipitation hardening stainless steels
410 215 212 205 200 190 - 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 -
440 215 212 205 200 190 - 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 -
630 200 195 185 175 170 - 10.9 - 11.1 - -
Austenitic stainless steels
304 200 194 186 179 172 165 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0
316 200 194 186 179 172 165 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0
'6%Mo' 195 190 182 174 166 158 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.0
Duplex stainless steels
'2205' 200 194 186 180 - - 13.0 13.5 14.0 - -

Some of the EN grades covered by the 'steel types' are shown in the following table.

AISI EN Grades Covered
410S 1.4000
430 1.4016
444 1.4521
410 1.4006 (410), 1.4005 (416), 1.4021 (420)
440 1.4112 (440B), 1.4122, 1.4125 (440C)
630 1.4542 (17/4 PH)
304 1.4301(304), 1.4305 (303), 1.4306 (304L), 1.4307 (304L), 1.4541 (321), 1.4550 (347)
316 1.4401 (316), 1.4404 (316L),
   
'2205' 1.4462 (2205)
'6%Mo' 1.4547 (254SMO)

Elevated temperature physical properties for austenitic stainless steels (INCO Publication 2980 Data)

The tables are based on graphs and tables shown in the INCO publication 'Austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steels-engineering properties at elevated temperatures'. This data is based on measured values, usually reported in 'fps' units with temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit. Here, these have been taken as the nearest values and so are for guidance only, not for specification purposes. Only part of the available data is shown here. The full publication (INCO 2980) is available from the Nickel Institute website

Modulus of Elasticity (E) and Rigidity(Shear) (G) (E/G)

Temp C 304 316 310
24 19.9/8.0 19.9/7.9 20.3/7.9
90 19.6/7.8 19.8/7.7 19.8/7.7
150 19.1/7.6 19.3/7.5 19.3/7.5
200 18.7/7.4 18.9/7.2 18.8/7.2
260 18.3/7.2 18.5/7.0 18.4/7.0
320 18.0/7.0 18.0/6.8 17.9/6.8
370 17.4/6.8 17.5/6.6 17.5/6.6
430 16.9/6.7 16.7/6.4 17.0/6.4
480 16.3/6.5 16.5/6.2 16.6/6.2
540 15.8/6.3 16.0/6.0 16.2/6.0
590 15.3/6.0 15.6/5.8 15.8/5.8
650 14.8/5.8 15.1/5.7 15.3/5.6
700 14.3/5.6 14.6/5.6 14.9/5.3
760 13.6/5.4 14.0/5.4 14.4/5.0
820 12.7/5.2 13.4/5.3 13.4/4.9
870 - - 13.5/4.6

Units are kgf/mm2 x 103 (multiply by 9.807 to convert to N/mm2)

Poisson's Ratio

Temp C 304 316 310
150 0.28 0.26 0.32
260 0.30 0.29 0.31
370 0.32 0.34 0.31
480 0.28 0.30 0.32
590 0.29 0.32 0.34
700 0.28 0.31 0.34
820 0.25 0.24 0.29

Poisson's ratio does not have any units.

Density

Temp C 301 316
20 7910 7950
90 7880 7920
200 7840 7880
320 7790 7830
430 7740 7790
540 7690 7740
650 7640 7690
760 7590 7640
870 7540 7590

Units have been converted in this table into Kg/m3

Thermal Expansion

These are 'average' values between 20 degC and the temperature shown, not 'instantaneous' values ie specific values for the temperature shown. The values are taken from the graph, Fig31, and so are subject to some interpretation from the curves plotted.

Temp C 304 310
100 16.3 15.4
200 16.7 15.6
300 17.1 16.1
400 17.6 16.6
500 18.0 17.0
600 18.3 17.1
700 19.0 17.6
800 20.0 18.0

The units are 10-6 x C-1

Thermal Conductivity

Temp C 304 316 310
200 15 13.5 12
400 17.5 16 14
600 18 18.5 17

The units used on Fig 29 of the INCO publication are kcal/m.hr.degC

Specific Heat

Temp C 301 316
20 456 452
90 490 486
200 532 528
320 557 548
430 574 565
540 586 573
650 599 586
760 620 615
870 645 649

The units are J/kg.K

Electrical Resistivity

Temp C 304 316 310
20 72 74 94
90 78 79 100
200 86 87 105
320 95 93 111
430 102 99 116
540 108 104 120
650 114 110 124
760 118 - 127
870 125 - 129

Units are micro-ohm.cm

Physical property units

A description of some of the units mentioned here is shown in the related article:

Ambient temperature physical properties of stainless steels to BS EN 10088-1

 

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