50 Grades of Stainless Steel

Following on from last year's 100 Not Out! campaign, from a potential list of about 200, the BSSA has selected 50 Grades of Stainless Steel as its theme for 2014. Each week throughout the year, we will showcase one grade and illustrate the variety of corrosion resistant, mechanical and physical properties which determine its suitability for a wide range of applications.

Campaign Emails

This is the list of emails that have been sent so far. Click on each link to open the email in a new browser window.

  1. 1.
    304/304L 1.4301/1.4307 S30400/S30403

    304/304L 1.4301/1.4307 S30400/S30403

    What should the first grade be? Not surprisingly, 304 (1.4301) and its variants are the most common grades in the SSAS database. This reflects the market as a whole.

  2. 2.
    316/316L 1.4401/1.4404 S31600/S31603

    316/316L 1.4401/1.4404 S31600/S31603

    Grade 316 (1.4401) is the second in this series of articles about stainless steel grades. It is the most common grade which highlights the benefits of molybdenum(Mo).
  3. 3.
    430 1.4016 S43000

    430 1.4016 S43000

    Grade 430 (1.4016) is the most common ferritic stainless steel grade in sheet form. It features in many familiar everyday items.
  4. 4.
    2205 Duplex 1.4462 S31803/S32205

    2205 Duplex 1.4462 S31803/S32205

    2205 Duplex is a generic term for the most common of the duplex stainless steels. It has become the grade of choice where 316/316L does not have adequate corrosion resistance.
  5. 5.
    420 1.4021/1.4028/1.4031/1.4034 S42000

    420 1.4021/1.4028/1.4031/1.4034 S42000

    Grade 420 is a “descendant” of the martensitic grade which was invented by Harry Brearley in Sheffield in 1913. It is a hardenable stainless steel used for its basic corrosion resistance, high strength and wear resistance.
  6. 6.
    431 1.4057 S43100 S80 (aerospace grade)

    431 1.4057 S43100 S80 (aerospace grade)

    Grade 431 (1.4057) is the “all round” engineering martensitic stainless steel, combining fair corrosion resistance with good strength and impact toughness.
  7. 7.
    Superduplex 1.4410/1.4501/1.4507 S32750/S32760/S32550

    Superduplex 1.4410/1.4501/1.4507 S32750/S32760/S32550

    Superduplex is a generic term covering a range of highly alloyed grades developed for use in highly aggressive conditions, notably in sea water.
  8. 8.
    1.4003 S40977

    1.4003 S40977

    Developed originally as 3CR12 in South Africa, 1.4003 is a low cost stainless steel used as a cost effective substitute for galvanised and painted carbon steels. It is sometimes termed a “utility ferritic” grade.
  9. 9.
    6% Mo 1.4529/1.4547 N08926/S31254

    6% Mo 1.4529/1.4547 N08926/S31254

    “6% Mo” is a generic term for several highly alloyed austenitic grades. They have been developed for highly aggressive seawater and chemical processing environments.
  10. 10.
    310 1.4845 S31008

    310 1.4845 S31008

    310 is the “workhorse” high temperature steel. Its fully austenitic structure allows it to double as a non-magnetic stainless steel at normal temperatures.
  11. 11.
    17-4 PH 630 1.4542 S17400

    17-4 PH 630 1.4542 S17400

    Grade 17-4 PH (1.4542) is perhaps the most common example of the precipitation hardening stainless grades. It combines good corrosion resistance with high strength and good impact toughness.
  12. 12.
    Lean Duplex 1.4062/1.4162/1.4362/1.4482/1.4662 S32202/S32101/S32304/S32001/S82441

    Lean Duplex 1.4062/1.4162/1.4362/1.4482/1.4662 S32202/S32101/S32304/S32001/S82441

    Lean Duplex is a generic term covering a range of stainless steel grades which are designed to have corrosion resistance in the spectrum of 304 to 316 or slightly beyond but with at least twice the design strength at lower cost.
  13. 13.
    XM-19 1.3964 (W Nr) S20910

    XM-19 1.3964 (W Nr) S20910

    >XM-19, often known by its AK Steel brand name of Nitronic 50®, is a high strength nitrogen-bearing austenitic stainless steel. It has superior corrosion resistance and strength compared to 316/316L.
  14. 14.
    409 1.4512 S40900

    409 1.4512 S40900

    409 is a low cost ferritic stainless steel. Its dominant use is in vehicle exhaust systems, so much so that it is often referred to as “muffler” grade.
  15. 15.
    Stabilised Austenitics 321/347 1.4541/1.4550 S32100/S34700

    Stabilised Austenitics 321/347 1.4541/1.4550 S32100/S34700

    The stabilised austenitic grades 321 and 347 are similar to 304 but with Ti or Nb to improve intergranular corrosion resistance. They also have superior high temperature mechanical properties compared to 304/304L.
  16. 16.
    904L 1.4539 N08904

    904L 1.4539 N08904

    904L was originally developed for sulphuric acid service, particularly in concentrations from 20% to 85%. Its high chromium and molybdenum also makes it more resistant to pitting corrosion than standard grades such as 316/316L.
  17. 17.
    304LN 1.4311 S30453

    304LN 1.4311 S30453

    304LN is used where an extremely low level of magnetic permeability is required. This derives from its high nitrogen content.
  18. 18.
    430F 1.4105 S43020

    430F 1.4105 S43020

    430F is used where a high level of magnetic permeability is required. This derives from its fully ferritic structure. Its high level of machinability allows volume throughput of components.
  19. 19.
    303 1.4305 S30300

    303 1.4305 S30300

    303 is the most common “free-machining” grade using sulphur to produce sulphides allowing easier chip-breaking during machining. Basically it is 304 with sulphur.
  20. 20.
    301 1.4310 S30100

    301 1.4310 S30100

    301 is a low nickel, higher carbon variant of 304. Its dominant purpose is to increase the work hardening capability of this austenitic grade of stainless steel to produce very high strength thin strip and wire.
  21. 21.
    201 1.4372 S20100

    201 1.4372 S20100

    201 is typical of the 200 series of stainless steels. These steels use manganese to replace nickel in austenitic stainless steels, mainly in order to make them lower cost. 201 is broadly similar to 304 for corrosion resistance but with some important differences in mechanical properties.
  22. 22.
    S21800

    S21800

    S21800, often known by its AK Steel brand name of Nitronic 60®, is a galling and wear resistant nitrogen-bearing austenitic stainless steel. It has superior corrosion resistance to 316L.
  23. 23.
    F6NM 1.4313 S41500

    F6NM 1.4313 S41500

    F6NM is a low–carbon martensitic stainless steel with basic corrosion resistance, good strength, good toughness and much better weldability than most martensitic grades of stainless steel.
  24. 24.
    1.4835 S30815

    1.4835 S30815

    1.4835, often known by its Outokumpu brand name of 253MA, is a heat-resistant austenitic stainless steel. It is designed to have similar heat resistance to 310 but with higher creep strength due to strengthening with nitrogen.
  25. 25.
    12% CrMoV 1.4923 (typical grade)

    12% CrMoV 1.4923 (typical grade)

    “12 Chrome Moly Van” steels are a series of martensitic stainless steels designed for use at moderately high temperatures. 1.4923 is a typical grade in this series. The dominant application is steam power generating plant.
  26. 26.
    A286/660 1.4980 S66286

    A286/660 1.4980 S66286

    A286 is an austenitic precipitation hardened (PH) stainless steel. It has excellent creep strength and can be used at higher temperatures (up to 700°C) than the 12% CrMoV martensitic stainless steels.
  27. 27.
    1.4886 N08330

    1.4886 N08330

    1.4886, often known by its Rolled Alloys brand name RA330®, is a high temperature austenitic stainless steel with superior performance to standard grades such as 310.
  28. 28.
    1.4418

    1.4418

    1.4418 is a martensitic stainless steel with enhanced corrosion resistance and weldability.
  29. 29.
    420MoV 1.4116 X50CrMoV15

    420MoV 1.4116 X50CrMoV15

    X50CrMoV15 is a high hardness martensitic stainless steel. In strip form, its dominant use is for high quality knife blades. This is a rare, possibly a unique, example of the EN Name of a stainless steel grade being used for marketing purposes.
  30. 30.
    1.4828

    1.4828

    1.4828 is a heat resistant austenitic stainless steel. It has improved oxidation resistance, carburisation resistance and high temperature strength compared to standard grades like 304.
  31. 31.
    440A-C 1.4109/1.4112/1.4125 S44002-4

    440A-C 1.4109/1.4112/1.4125 S44002-4

    The 440 grades form a series of high carbon martensitic stainless steels. They have basic corrosion resistance and extremely high hardness and wear resistance.
  32. 32.
    FV520B 1.4594 S45000 S143/4/5 aerospace grades

    FV520B 1.4594 S45000 S143/4/5 aerospace grades

    FV520B is a martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel. It is similar to the more common PH grade 17-4PH. It combines moderate corrosion resistance with high strength and moderate toughness.
  33. 33.
    17-7PH 1.4568 S17700

    17-7PH 1.4568 S17700

    17-7 PH is a precipitation hardening semi-austenitic stainless steel. It is able to develop a very high strength due to the strengthening of aluminium particles. It is usually found in strip or wire form for spring applications.
  34. 34.
    304Cu (302HQ) 1.4567 S30430

    304Cu (302HQ) 1.4567 S30430

    304Cu is based on the familiar grade 304 with a significant addition of copper. This reduces the work hardening of the steel to allow operations such as cold heading, thread rolling and improved machining.
  35. 35.
    Stabilised Ferritics 439 441 445 460LI

    Stabilised Ferritics 439 441 445 460LI

    A series of grades which compete with 304/304L in corrosion resistance. The absence of nickel produces a lower cost alternative. The ferritic structure gives excellent deep drawability and stress corrosion cracking resistance but disadvantages in welding of thick sections and stretch forming.
  36. 36.
    Stabilised Ferritics with Mo 436 444 470LI

    Stabilised Ferritics with Mo 436 444 470LI

    Grades which compete with 316/316L in corrosion resistance. The absence of nickel produces a lower cost alternative. The ferritic structure gives excellent deep drawability and stress corrosion cracking resistance but disadvantages in welding of thick sections and stretch forming.
  37. 37.
    305 1.4303 S30500

    305 1.4303 S30500

    305 is essentially a high nickel version of 304. Its high nickel content reduces the work hardening of the grade and imparts much improved deep drawing properties.
  38. 38.
    Stabilised Austenitics with Mo 316Ti/316Cb 1.4571/1.4580 S31635/S31640

    Stabilised Austenitics with Mo 316Ti/316Cb 1.4571/1.4580 S31635/S31640

    The stabilised austenitic grades 316Ti and 316Cb are similar to 316 but with Ti or Nb to improve intergranular corrosion resistance. They also have superior high temperature mechanical properties compared to 316/316L.
  39. 39.
    316L plus Mo 317L 316LN 317LMN 1.4432/1.4435/1.4438/1.4429/1.4439

    316L plus Mo 317L 316LN 317LMN 1.4432/1.4435/1.4438/1.4429/1.4439

    Taking 316L (1.4404) as a basis, it is possible to construct a series of grades by adding molybdenum and nitrogen for increased corrosion resistance and nickel for achieving the correct austenitic balance. Other properties, notably magnetic permeability are also affected.
  40. 40.
    Austenitic H grades 304H 316H 321H 1.4948 1.4919 1.4941 S30409 S31609 S32109

    Austenitic H grades 304H 316H 321H 1.4948 1.4919 1.4941 S30409 S31609 S32109

    The H grade versions of familiar grades like 304, 316 and 321 have a minimum carbon content to produce increased high temperature strength particularly creep strength. They must also meet a minimum grain size.
  41. 41.
    309 1.4833 S30908

    309 1.4833 S30908

    309 is a heat resisting stainless steel, lying somewhere between 304 and 310 in the heat resisting spectrum. It is also used as a welding electrode for welding austenitic stainless steel to carbon steel.
  42. 42.
    SiCromAl 1.4713 1.4724 1.4742 1.4762

    SiCromAl 1.4713 1.4724 1.4742 1.4762

    SiCromAl grades are a series of ferritic heat resisting stainless steels with varying amounts of silicon, chromium and aluminium. They are useful for temperatures up to 1150°C depending on grade.
  43. 43.
    416 1.4005 S41600

    416 1.4005 S41600

    416 is the most common “free-machining” martensitic grade using sulphur to produce sulphides allowing easier chip-breaking during machining.
  44. 44.
    1.4122

    1.4122

    1.4122 is a martensitic grade with enhanced corrosion resistance, comparable to that of ferritic grade 430 and somewhat better than the basic martensitic grades such as 410, 420 and 431.
  45. 45.
    Hyperduplex (S32707, S33207)

    Hyperduplex (S32707, S33207)

    Hyperduplex grades offer significantly improved resistance to pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and increased strength compared to super duplex grades.
  46. 46.
    301LN 1.4318 S30153

    301LN 1.4318 S30153

    301LN is an austenitic stainless steel with a high work hardening rate. Nitrogen is used to provide increased strength.
  47. 47.
    310 MoLN 1.4466 S31050

    310 MoLN 1.4466 S31050

    310 MoLN is a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel grade. It is based on 310 with additions of molybdenum and nitrogen and a lower carbon content. In contrast to 310, which is used for heat resistance, it is used for its corrosion resistance especially in the production of urea.
  48. 48.
    304 Boronated S30460-S30467

    304 Boronated S30460-S30467

    This is a series of steels with increasing levels of boron 0.20/0.29% to 1.75/2.25%. It is used entirely in the nuclear industry for neutron absorption.
  49. 49.
    446 1.4749 S44600

    446 1.4749 S44600

    446 is a ferritic heat resisting steel useful up to 1100°C.
  50. 50.
    Calcium Treated Grades

    Calcium Treated Grades

    Calcium is used to improve the machinability of many stainless steel grades without significantly affecting corrosion resistance.

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